Monday, December 5, 2011


Expecting happiness from the modes of external objects is wrong vision. Expecting happiness from the self-soul is right vision. The modification of happiness comes from the self soul. According to Jainism the Cosmos is made of six eternal substances which are Jeev (Souls), Pudgal (Fine material atoms/Energy), Dharmastikay (Medium of Motion), Adharmastikay (Medium of Rest), Aakash (Space) and Kaal (Time).  There are infinite souls in this Cosmos and all are independent from each other. None is the doer of the other’s happiness and sorrow. The basic attributes of a soul are Infinite Knowledge, Infinite Perception, Infinite Bliss and Infinite Power. To know and to perceive is termed in Jainism as “Upayog”. When the Upayog is oriented towards the outside things then it causes the raise of attachment and aversion. When it is fixed in the self then there is no attachment and aversion and the soul stays away from Karma.

Every substance in the cosmos has dual nature, special and general. From the special aspect the substance undergoes changes. From the general aspect the substance is steady and unchanged. The changing form of a substance is called modifications. For example, a bar of gold has its own original qualities. That bar can be converted into a chain. In that case, the shape of the bar is destroyed and a new shape (chain) has been produced. However the qualities of gold remain unchanged. Now if we melt the chain and make a bangle out of it, then we destroy the chain (an old form) and produce a bangle (a new form). Again the inherent qualities of the gold remain unchanged. Therefore, the bar, chain and bangle transient forms or modifications while gold is the matter (Dravya) which remains constant. This is just an example in real even the gold is modifications of Pudgal. Pudgal or fine material atoms are the substance in this case which remain unchanged in every process. The star (the sun) is a giant ball of plasma. Plasma is the state of matter which is ultimately made of innumerable sub atomic charged particles. The sun is the modification. After billions of years the sun will lose its present form and will convert into a new form, a planetary nebula. In this case the basic qualities of Pudgal is steady and unchanged only the form is modified.

Our main problem is that all unenlightened people in this world directly focus and value the modifications of the substance. The one who is oriented in the modifications will value the gold more than the stone. The fact is the gold and the stone are made of same particles. We generally take the substance and its modifications to be different. To think that both are one is called the vision of non-difference or Abhed Drishti. The enlightened have this vision and they see all non living substances as atoms. We become addicted to the modifications not to the substance. That’s why if someone steals gold from us then we become unhappy and angry. But if someone takes stone from our hand then we won’t be angry that much because we have the value of gold far more than stone. The enlightened will see them to be the same. Thus they will develop detachment from all the external things and will remain in the meditation of the self-soul. We have divided things into too many forms and that’s why we have become too far from our real self. In order to remain in deep meditation of soul and to remain detached to the other things we have to practice the vision of non-difference.

-Rahul Zota