Jain philosopher-monks postulated the existence of karma as subtle and microscopic particles that cannot be perceived by senses, some two millennia before modern science proved the existence of atoms and subatomic particles. However, these and other elementary particles that have been either discovered or postulated cannot be equated with karmic particles. Some authors have sought to explain the concept of karmic particles in the context of modern science and physics. Hermann Kuhn points out that, although the idea of "karmic particles" is not yet proven, one only needs to recall that science found proof of the existence of molecules and atoms only the 19th and 20th century. Anyone who would have suggested that these "indivisible" particles were made up of even subtler units like quarks and leptons only a hundred years ago may have been dismissed, though such theories were in existence. With regards to interaction of consciousness and karmic matter, he further states that, it can be easily understood considering that ideas like the mind fundamentally affecting matter are now accepted in scientific circles. While admitting that though science has not discovered karmic matter yet, he is of opinion that it does not state anything against its existence. K. V. Mardia, in his book The Scientific Foundations of Jainism, has interpreted karma in terms of modern physics, suggesting that the particles are made of karmons, dynamic high energy particles which permeate the universe.