1. Every substance in this world at every moment independently manifests in different modification of its own attributes on its own accord. These manifestations of the substances are their actions. These actions are called condition, change, modification or behavior. Each substance is the creator of its own modifications. It does not at all need the favor or co-operation of any other substance for these modifications.
2. Any activity materializes with its cause only. The stuff that produces the activity is the cause thereof. This stuff which produces the activity is in form of “Uppadan and Nimmit” only (substantive cause and instrumental [conventional] cause).
Substantive cause: - (Uppadan Karan); - that which itself changes its own condition is called the substantive cause or capacity of manifestation is existing in the substance itself. This is known as uppadan-karan.
Instrumental cause :-( Nimitt karan): - that which does not change, its own condition, but upon which suitability is imposed is called the instrumental or conventional cause. Dravya which itself does not manifest this particular action but which is considered to be favourable cause of this action is called Nimmit Karan.
Example: - In the making of an earthen pot, earth is the substantive cause and weed, stick and the pot- maker are instrumental causes.
3. The substance in which the modification is born is the power of the self (Uppadan Karan) were produce modification is the object i.e. Upadeya.
4. From the point of view of the conventional cause, the same modification is the changed condition i.e. Namittik.
5. The same modification is thus illustrated in two ways; one from the point of views the power of the self and from the other point of view the conventional cause.
6. In the emergence of the making of pot, substantive cause is earth, from that aspect making of pot is the object and potter wheel etc are conventional causes. The same making of` pot from the point of view of conventional cause is the changed condition of the substance.
These are just two aspect of the same phenomenon.
7. Conclusion is that in earth and pot the relationship is of ‘Uppadan – Uppadey’. In pot maker and pot the relationship is of Nimmitt – Naimittik.
8. For activity – the eligibility at that time of substance is called Uppadan – uppadan means the natural capacity of the substance. During the activity – the instrumental other substance is called Nimitt. Nimitt means presence of suitable favorable – other thing.
9. Let us understand this phenomenon with other examples. Apply these concepts of substance or conventional cause in necklace and right faith.
- The substance gold is the power of the self and necklace is the desired manifestation. Fire, goldsmith and others are conventional causes, and necklace is the new condition.
- In the same manner the soul substance or the attribute of faith is the power of self and right faith is the desired manifestation. The removal of perverted faith or karmic matter is the instrumental cause and right faith is the changed state of faith attribute.
10. The uppadan and Nimmitt does not have subject – object relationship; because both are different independent substances. The Nimmitt – Naimaittik relation should be acknowledged.
11. This power of self is of two kinds:
- The eternal self power (Trikali means permenent Uppadan)
- The momental power of the self (Temporary Uppadan)
- The substance or attribute that undergoes the change itself is the eternal self power.
- The momental power of self can be illustrated in two ways:
a) An eternal current of manifestations flows in the substance and the attributes. In that eternal current the immediately previous momentary manifestation (purva prayay) is the momental power of the self and the manifestation immediately after the present moment (uttar prayay) is the action.
b) The momentary capacity (eligibility) of the substance to change in that particular modification is the momental power of the self and manifestation is the action.
12. The momentary self power is called the forceful cause also. The eternal self power is always present, but if that is regarded as the completely forceful cause, alleged actions will always be in the process of happening. As such the forceful cause is the immediately previous manifestation of the substances and the momentary ability of the substance itself is there. Action can not be fruitful without these two and it always materializes when the two are present. We can say conclusively that the substance itself with its previous modification is the power of the self and substance with the immediately next manifestation is the desired action. Favourable external circumstances and objects are conventional causes and the alleged modification their action.
13. Conventional causes are of two kinds:
a) Indifferent (Udasin)
b) Prompt (Prerak)
14. When the self is completely ready, the desired action materializes and that time the favorable instrumental causes are always present; one does not have to find them. It is therefore said that the seeker of the soul should not be restless in finding favorable instrumental causes. Who says that instrumental causes are not there? However we have not to make a search of these. When the action is self materialized, the favorable instrumental causes are always there. This is state of the things. We should understand this.
15. Action does not follow the instrumental causes; instrumental causes are so called according to the action.
16. Non self substances do not forcefully obstruct the altered action; when our own manifestation is undesirable, then it is only an external cause, while another man spoils his thoughts without any instrumental cause. As such, there is no instrumental causation as a rule. Thus, it is perverted faith to find fault of non self substances.
17. Neither the instrumental cause does anything by force nor does the self collect or brings instrumental causes together. The mutual relationship is very simple. This is explained in the following way:
- If a karmic matter by its own effort hurts the sentient nature of the soul and if it fetches external material, then karma must be animate as well as possessing strength, but is never like that; the relationship is very automatic. When the karmas reach the stage of fruition, the soul itself leaves it natural poise and behaves otherwise and the other substances also behave in their own manner. Such is the relationship of the desired action with the instrumental cause. The same holds good in the case of karmas. The whole of karma principle is explained in terms of Nimitta. So try to understand uppadan & Nimitta karran.
18. By understanding the correct nature of the power of self and the instrumental causes for materialization of an action. We can avoid unnecessary controversy and become happy.
19. Because a person does not have a correct knowledge of the intrinsic power of the self and the conventional causes of its manifestation, he throws the blame of his guilt on the conventional causes and wants to remain innocent. The soul cannot be free from unhappiness and grief by throwing the responsibility of its own delusions, attachments and aversions on the karmas. In such a state we lose the capacity to find our own truth and to see within us.
20. By understanding these in their right perspective, the pride of being able to do something in others is gone. The inferiority due to the desire of help or support from others is finished. The desire of association of the non self substances and the consequent restlessness is eliminated and natural, quiet, undisturbed state of soul emerges. This is state of self-realization.
21. It is very much essential to know both Uppadankaran and Nimittkaran.
22. But for looking within or for self-realization process - we have to remove our Dristi from Nimitt and concentrate on Uppadan.
23. The activity of knowing which is the work of our Gnyan (knowledge) attribute is continuously going on. Each one of us realizes this continuous activity of knowing. But ignorant Jeev (Soul) has believed that because there is a particular thing present and existing before it, he is having Gnyan (knowledge) of it or he knows it. One has this erroneous belief that dhyana (meditation) of knowledge take place because of Gnyeya (other thing). Each paryaya (mode) of Gnyan is the manifestation of Gnyan attribute, and that is real Uppadankaran of this Dhyana Paryaya. And that particular object. (Gnyeya) is called Nimittkaran; this understanding will be helpful in process of self-realization.
24. All this knowledge you are acquiring is only because of your Uppadan. This preaching or sermons are only Nimmitta guru or scriptures are Nimitta only. This should be understood very well.
Courtesy: “Jainism Means Self-Realization”