Monday, December 5, 2011


Expecting happiness from the modes of external objects is wrong vision. Expecting happiness from the self-soul is right vision. The modification of happiness comes from the self soul. According to Jainism the Cosmos is made of six eternal substances which are Jeev (Souls), Pudgal (Fine material atoms/Energy), Dharmastikay (Medium of Motion), Adharmastikay (Medium of Rest), Aakash (Space) and Kaal (Time).  There are infinite souls in this Cosmos and all are independent from each other. None is the doer of the other’s happiness and sorrow. The basic attributes of a soul are Infinite Knowledge, Infinite Perception, Infinite Bliss and Infinite Power. To know and to perceive is termed in Jainism as “Upayog”. When the Upayog is oriented towards the outside things then it causes the raise of attachment and aversion. When it is fixed in the self then there is no attachment and aversion and the soul stays away from Karma.

Every substance in the cosmos has dual nature, special and general. From the special aspect the substance undergoes changes. From the general aspect the substance is steady and unchanged. The changing form of a substance is called modifications. For example, a bar of gold has its own original qualities. That bar can be converted into a chain. In that case, the shape of the bar is destroyed and a new shape (chain) has been produced. However the qualities of gold remain unchanged. Now if we melt the chain and make a bangle out of it, then we destroy the chain (an old form) and produce a bangle (a new form). Again the inherent qualities of the gold remain unchanged. Therefore, the bar, chain and bangle transient forms or modifications while gold is the matter (Dravya) which remains constant. This is just an example in real even the gold is modifications of Pudgal. Pudgal or fine material atoms are the substance in this case which remain unchanged in every process. The star (the sun) is a giant ball of plasma. Plasma is the state of matter which is ultimately made of innumerable sub atomic charged particles. The sun is the modification. After billions of years the sun will lose its present form and will convert into a new form, a planetary nebula. In this case the basic qualities of Pudgal is steady and unchanged only the form is modified.

Our main problem is that all unenlightened people in this world directly focus and value the modifications of the substance. The one who is oriented in the modifications will value the gold more than the stone. The fact is the gold and the stone are made of same particles. We generally take the substance and its modifications to be different. To think that both are one is called the vision of non-difference or Abhed Drishti. The enlightened have this vision and they see all non living substances as atoms. We become addicted to the modifications not to the substance. That’s why if someone steals gold from us then we become unhappy and angry. But if someone takes stone from our hand then we won’t be angry that much because we have the value of gold far more than stone. The enlightened will see them to be the same. Thus they will develop detachment from all the external things and will remain in the meditation of the self-soul. We have divided things into too many forms and that’s why we have become too far from our real self. In order to remain in deep meditation of soul and to remain detached to the other things we have to practice the vision of non-difference.

-Rahul Zota

Thursday, November 24, 2011


Jain philosopher-monks postulated the existence of karma as subtle and microscopic particles that cannot be perceived by senses, some two millennia before modern science proved the existence of atoms and subatomic particles. However, these and other elementary particles that have been either discovered or postulated cannot be equated with karmic particles. Some authors have sought to explain the concept of karmic particles in the context of modern science and physics. Hermann Kuhn points out that, although the idea of "karmic particles" is not yet proven, one only needs to recall that science found proof of the existence of molecules and atoms only the 19th and 20th century.  Anyone who would have suggested that these "indivisible" particles were made up of even subtler units like quarks and leptons only a hundred years ago may have been dismissed, though such theories were in existence. With regards to interaction of consciousness and karmic matter, he further states that, it can be easily understood considering that ideas like the mind fundamentally affecting matter are now accepted in scientific circles. While admitting that though science has not discovered karmic matter yet, he is of opinion that it does not state anything against its existence. K. V. Mardia, in his book The Scientific Foundations of Jainism, has interpreted karma in terms of modern physics, suggesting that the particles are made of karmons, dynamic high energy particles which permeate the universe.
Source: Wikipedia

Sunday, September 18, 2011


1.        Every substance in this world at every moment independently manifests in different modification of its own attributes on its own accord. These manifestations of the substances are their actions. These actions are called condition, change, modification or behavior. Each substance is the creator of its own modifications. It does not at all need the favor or co-operation of any other substance for these modifications.

2.        Any activity materializes with its cause only. The stuff that produces the activity is the cause thereof. This stuff which produces the activity is in form of “Uppadan and Nimmit” only (substantive cause and instrumental [conventional] cause).

Substantive cause: - (Uppadan Karan); - that which itself changes its own condition is called the substantive cause or capacity of manifestation is existing in the substance itself. This is known as uppadan-karan.

Instrumental cause :-( Nimitt karan): - that which does not change, its own condition, but upon which suitability is imposed is called the instrumental or conventional cause. Dravya which itself does not manifest this particular action but which is considered to be favourable cause of this action is called Nimmit Karan.

Example: - In the making of an earthen pot, earth is the substantive cause and weed, stick and the pot- maker are instrumental causes.

3.        The substance in which the modification is born is the power of the self (Uppadan Karan) were produce modification is the object i.e. Upadeya.

4.        From the point of view of the conventional cause, the same modification is the changed condition i.e. Namittik.

5.        The same modification is thus illustrated in two ways; one from the point of views the power of the self and from the other point of view the conventional cause.

6.        In the emergence of the making of pot, substantive cause is earth, from that aspect making of pot is the object and potter wheel etc are conventional causes. The same making of` pot from the point of view of conventional cause is the changed condition of the substance.

These are just two aspect of the same phenomenon.

7.        Conclusion is that in earth and pot the relationship is of ‘Uppadan – Uppadey’. In pot maker and pot the relationship is of Nimmitt – Naimittik.

8.        For activity – the eligibility at that time of substance is called Uppadan – uppadan means the natural capacity of the substance. During the activity – the instrumental other substance is called Nimitt. Nimitt means presence of suitable favorable – other thing.

9.        Let us understand this phenomenon with other examples. Apply these concepts of substance or conventional cause in necklace and right faith.

  • The substance gold is the power of the self and necklace is the desired manifestation. Fire, goldsmith and others are conventional causes, and necklace is the new condition.
  • In the same manner the soul substance or the attribute of faith is the power of self and right faith is the desired manifestation. The removal of perverted faith or karmic matter is the instrumental cause and right faith is the changed state of faith attribute.

10.    The uppadan and Nimmitt does not have subject – object relationship; because both are different independent substances. The Nimmitt – Naimaittik relation should be acknowledged.

11.    This power of self is of two kinds:

  • The eternal self power (Trikali means permenent Uppadan)
  • The momental power of the self (Temporary Uppadan)
  1. The substance or attribute that undergoes the change itself is the eternal self power.
  2. The momental power of self can be illustrated in two ways:
a)     An eternal current of manifestations flows in the substance and the attributes. In that eternal current the immediately previous momentary manifestation (purva prayay) is the momental power of the self and the manifestation immediately after the present moment (uttar prayay) is the action.
b)     The momentary capacity (eligibility) of the substance to change in that particular modification is the momental power of the self and manifestation is the action.

12.     The momentary self power is called the forceful cause also. The eternal self power is always present, but if that is regarded as the completely forceful cause, alleged actions will always be in the process of happening. As such the forceful cause is the immediately previous manifestation of the substances and the momentary ability of the substance itself is there. Action can not be fruitful without these two and it always materializes when the two are present. We can say conclusively that the substance itself with its previous modification is the power of the self and substance with the immediately next manifestation is the desired action. Favourable external circumstances and objects are conventional causes and the alleged modification their action.

13.    Conventional causes are of two kinds:

a)     Indifferent (Udasin)
b)     Prompt (Prerak)

14.    When the self is completely ready, the desired action materializes and that time the favorable instrumental causes are always present; one does not have to find them. It is therefore said that the seeker of the soul should not be restless in finding favorable instrumental causes. Who says that instrumental causes are not there? However we have not to make a search of these. When the action is self materialized, the favorable instrumental causes are always there. This is state of the things. We should understand this.

15.    Action does not follow the instrumental causes; instrumental causes are so called according to the action.

16.    Non self substances do not forcefully obstruct the altered action; when our own manifestation is undesirable, then it is only an external cause, while another man spoils his thoughts without any instrumental cause. As such, there is no instrumental causation as a rule. Thus, it is perverted faith to find fault of non self substances.

17.      Neither the instrumental cause does anything by force nor does the self collect or brings instrumental causes together. The mutual relationship is very simple. This is explained in the following way:

  • If a karmic matter by its own effort hurts the sentient nature of the soul and if it fetches external material, then karma must be animate as well as possessing strength, but is never like that; the relationship is very automatic. When the karmas reach the stage of fruition, the soul itself leaves it natural poise and behaves otherwise and the other substances also behave in their own manner. Such is the relationship of the desired action with the instrumental cause. The same holds good in the case of karmas. The whole of karma principle is explained in terms of Nimitta. So try to understand uppadan & Nimitta karran.

18.    By understanding the correct nature of the power of self and the instrumental causes for materialization of an action. We can avoid unnecessary controversy and become happy.

19.    Because a person does not have a correct knowledge of the intrinsic power of the self and the conventional causes of its manifestation, he throws the blame of his guilt on the conventional causes and wants to remain innocent. The soul cannot be free from unhappiness and grief by throwing the responsibility of its own delusions, attachments and aversions on the karmas. In such a state we lose the capacity to find our own truth and to see within us.

20.     By understanding these in their right perspective, the pride of being able to do something in others is gone. The inferiority due to the desire of help or support from others is finished. The desire of association of the non self substances and the consequent restlessness is eliminated and natural, quiet, undisturbed state of soul emerges. This is state of self-realization.

21.    It is very much essential to know both Uppadankaran and Nimittkaran.

22.    But for looking within or for self-realization process - we have to remove our Dristi from Nimitt and concentrate on Uppadan.

23.    The activity of knowing which is the work of our Gnyan (knowledge) attribute is continuously going on. Each one of us realizes this continuous activity of knowing. But ignorant Jeev (Soul) has believed that because there is a particular thing present and existing before it, he is having Gnyan (knowledge) of it or he knows it. One has this erroneous belief that dhyana (meditation) of knowledge take place because of Gnyeya (other thing). Each paryaya (mode) of Gnyan is the manifestation of Gnyan attribute, and that is real Uppadankaran of this Dhyana Paryaya. And that particular object. (Gnyeya) is called Nimittkaran; this understanding will be helpful in process of self-realization.

24.    All this knowledge you are acquiring is only because of your Uppadan. This preaching or sermons are only Nimmitta guru or scriptures are Nimitta only. This should be understood very well.

Courtesy: “Jainism Means Self-Realization”

Friday, August 26, 2011


Only Arihanta, the conquer of love and hatred can achieve the height of ultimate truth

According to Jainism the cosmos is made of six substances and all the substances are eternal. Nobody has created them and nobody can destroy them. The six substances are described below:

Jeev (Soul): According to Jain philosophy, this universe consists of infinite Jivas or souls that are uncreated and always existing.  There are two main categories of souls: unliberated mundane embodied souls that are still subject to transmigration and rebirths in this samsara due to karmic bondage and the liberated souls that are free from birth and death. All souls are intrinsically pure but are found in bondage with karma since beginning-less time. A soul has to make efforts to eradicate the karmas attain its true and pure form. The sentient substance (soul) is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions (doer), is co-extensive with its own body. It is the enjoyer (of its actions), located in the world of rebirth (samsara) (or) emancipated (moksa) (and) has the intrinsic movement upwards. The qualities of the soul are cetana (consciousness) and upyoga (knowledge and perception). Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither really destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer respectively to the disappearing of one state and appearing of another state and these are merely the modes of the soul. Thus Jiva with its attributes and modes, roaming in samsara (universe), may lose its particular form and assume a new one. Again this form may be lost and the original acquired.

Pudgala (Material Atoms): Matter is classified as solid, liquid, gaseous, energy, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles. Paramāṇu or ultimate particle (atoms or sub-atomic particles) is the basic building block of all matter. One of the qualities of the paramāṇu and pudgala is that of permanence and indestructibility. It combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. It cannot be created nor destroyed and the total amount of matter in the universe remains the same.

Dharma-Dravya (Medium of Motion): Dharma and Adharma are peculiar to the Jain system of thought, depicting the principles of Motion and Rest. They are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharma motion is not possible. The medium of motion helps matter and the sentient that are prone to motion to move, like water (helps) fish. However, it does not set in motion those that do not move.

Adharma-Dravya (Medium of Rest): Without Adharma, rest and stability is not possible in the universe. The principle of rest helps matter and the sentient that are liable to stay to stay without moving, like the shade helps travelers. It does not stabilize those that move.

Ākāśa (Space): Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading, infinite and made of infinite space-points.

Kaal (Time): Kāal is a real entity according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time.
Only souls are living and has consciousness, the rest of five has no consciousness. The five substances other than Matter are formless and cannot be perceived by both the senses and the sensors.

Now the Principle of Freedom of Substance is as below:

Now there is an important principle in Jainism called the PRINCIPLE OF FREEDOM OF SUBSTANCE taught by the enlightened masters. This principle states that each of the six substances is independent. None depends on another. None can harm, alter, affect or influence the other substance. Each soul is independent and cannot harm, alter, affect or influence the other soul. Every soul is the doer and enjoyer of its own attributes. Each atomic particle being substance is also independent. Each substance remains in boundary of its own attributes and modifications. All matters absorbed in own substance, touches their own circle of infinite virtues, yet they do not mutually touch each other. Even one soul cannot interfere in the activity of other soul. Activity of two substances is different only. Consciousness is not doing activity of inanimate; an inanimate is not doing activity of consciousness. Man who believes doing two activities of one substance is of illusory sight.

In this world, many have great illusion that by karma (karma atoms), soul’s pure state is spoiled. In other words, inanimate karma atoms is doer of soul’s spoiled state, but it is not so, because it is against the Principle of Freedom of Substance. Here we can take an example to understand this. A soul resides in a body but from the absolute view point both are different substances. The soul is consciousness and the body is inanimate (made of innumerable particles). Now as we walk, run or stop the body also walks, runs and stops. So anyone can say that in this case the animate (soul) is doing the work of inanimate (the body) but it is not so. Because the ability (the energy for movement) is an attribute of matter also, so in real case it is not us who causes this body to move. We are the Instrumental Cause (Nimitta) but the Real Cause (Upadaan) is within each atoms of this body.

Suppose, an atomic particle (an electron etc) is in space, here again a particle and space are two different substances. So a particle, despite being in space never touches any attribute of space. Space is absorbed in its own attributes and a particle is absorbed in its own. Same thing can be considered for soul.

People who are in illusory state believe that, * this world cannot be made without a doer (God or something like that). * One soul can do other soul’s life, death, happiness, misery. * By inspiration of soul body can move here, there and can speak. * Karma (Matter) can trouble the soul. * Somebody’s blessings become welfare of others. * A potter makes a pot or a goldsmith shapes ornaments.

Ignorant believes that God will rescue him/her. If we think that way then it does mean that there is no spirit and power in us. Thus we become dependent on someone else, something fantasy. To get rid of such ideas one has to develop faith that one’s freedom is in one’s own hands. When a soul destroys the bondage of karma then it attains the state of perfection and that state is called God or Siddha. Every soul is doing own feeling and suffering – cannot become doer or sufferer of other things. In the time of intense disease, soul does not feel suffering of inanimate disease but experiences hatred feeling because of its wrong belief and ignorance. In the experience of pure soul with spiritual knowledge and faith – soul is not doer or sufferer of attachment and resentment – but is doer of pure state of modification and enjoys its bliss. This is the stage of self-realization.

From this we conclude the independence of each substance, its attributes and its modification. This is the most important principle of Jain philosophy. One can attain state of self-realization by complete understanding and faith of this great principle of Jain philosophy.

Thursday, July 14, 2011


Lord Shantinath was the 16th Tirthankar (Ford-maker) of present era in Jainism. Shantinath was born to King Viswasen Raja and Queen Achira Rani at Hastinapur in the Ikshvaku clan. His birth date is the thirteen day of the Jyest Krishna month of the Indian calendar.

Previous Births of Lord Shantinath

Kind Shrishen 2. Birth as a Celestial Being 3. Shriprabhdev 4. Amittej Vidyadhar, 5. A Celestial Being 6. Aparajit Baldev, 7. In the Achyut Celestial World. 8. Vajrayudh Chakravarti, 9. In the Graiveyak dimension 10. Meghrath 11. In the Sarvarthasiddha dimension, 12. Lord Shantinath.

The 10th Birth: King Meghrath

According to Jain Cosmology this Universe is divided into three realms. The upper realm is constituted of 12 Celestial Worlds. We live in the middle realm which contains billions of galaxies (dweep). The lower realm is constituted of seven hells. The souls that reside in the upper realm are powerful than us (from absolute perspective all souls are alike but because of virtuous karma many souls take birth in the celestial worlds). The celestial beings can do things which we can’t.

Meghrath was a benevolent and religious ruler. He was compassionate and protected all living things. Being a Kshatriya and a warrior he had the chivalry to sacrifice all he had in order to protect those in trouble. One day while observing the partial renunciation vow (Paushadh) he was about to start a discourse on the religion propagated by the Tirthankars. All of a sudden a pigeon, trembling with fear, fell in his lap and uttered in choking human voice, "Save me, O king! Give me refuge; take me under your protection!" The compassionate king comforted the bird and took it under his protection. The pigeon was followed by a falcon who too uttered in human language, "O king! This pigeon is my food, leave it alone." The king tried to explain, "It has taken refuge with me, as such I am duty bound to protect it. I will give you any type of food you want; why kill a living thing just to fill your stomach?" The falcon insisted, "If you will not leave it I may die of hunger. I am a carnivore; who will provide me food. If I die, you will be responsible and bear the sin." When the falcon did not yield, Meghrath said at last, "O falcon! As long as I exist, I will not allow you to die. I will cut out flesh from my body equivalent to the weight of this little pigeon and give it to you. You may satisfy your urge to eat. But under no circumstance I shall allow you to kill the bird that has taken refuge with me." The falcon agreed to this proposal and the king put the pigeon in one pan of balance and in the other started putting pieces of flesh cut out from his own body. Surprisingly, the weight of the pigeon continued to increase as the king went on putting his flesh in the pan. Witnessing this pathetic scene, the queens and the members of the assembly were moved to tears. They requested the king not to sacrifice his precious life for a mere pigeon. The falcon, was also requested relent but he too declined. The king continued to cut flesh from his body and put it in the pan of the balance. At last, when the pieces of flesh were not enough, the king got up from his seat and sat down in the pan. Everyone present was dumb struck at this lofty compassion and chivalry displayed by the king. Suddenly there was a flesh of divine light and a divine personage appeared. The pigeon and the falcon disappeared. The celestial being appeared and addressed the king, "Maharaj! The Indra was praising your compassion and courage, in his assembly. I could not contain myself and came around to test you myself. All this was my creation. You come out with flying colors. You are worthy of the praise bestowed on you by Indra. Please forgive me." The celestial being filled Meghrath’s wounds instantaneously and left for his abode. Whenever there is a talk about chivalry and compassion king Meghrath’s name is taken with respect.
Disturbed by the miseries of the mundane life, one day king Meghrath was doing mediation. He transcended to a very high level of purity. Knowing about this uncommon purity and determination of Meghrath, indra bowed to him with reverence, "My salutations to you O citizen Yogi! There are but a few in this world who could reach this level of detachment and purity." Two senior consorts of Indra, Surup and Atirup did not like this gesture of praise of a mere human. They both came to disturb the meditation of Meghrath. They made several beautiful and voluptuous damsels appear before the king. These beauties tried to disturb Meghrath by a display of dances and inviting gestures. When these night long seductive afflictions failed to disturb king Meghrath, the goddesses, before returning to their abode, appeared themselves and asked the king to forgive them. King Meghrath, then, crowned his son and took Diksha from Arhat Dhanrath. Due to his increasing purity in meditation in the face of many afflictions, he earned the Tirthankar-nam-and-gotra-karma. Completing his age he reincarnated in the Sarvarthsiddha dimension.

Birth of Lord Shantinath
From the Sarvarth Siddha Dimention of the heavenly realm, the being that was Meghrath descended into the womb of queen Achira, wife of king Vishvasen of Ikshvaku clan and ruler of Hastinapur. On the thirteenth day of the dark half of the month of Jyeshta the queen gave birth to the great and illustrious son. The whole universe, including even the hell, was pervaded by a soothing glow and a feeling of joy and happiness. Due to the pacifying influence during the period of pregnancy, the new born was named Shanti Kumar (Shanti = Peace). When he came of age he was married to several beautiful princesses.

The Sovereign King Shantinath
After a few years king Shantinath got a son who was named Chakrayudh. Several years later, the divine disc weapon appeared in the armory. When the traditional worship rituals of this weapon were concluded, it started moving toward the east on its own. Shantinath followed the Chakra with his armed forces. Most of the kings on the way surrendered. After defeating the remaining few Shantinath became a Chakravarti (A Sovereign King).

Renunciation and Spiritual Practices
Slowly and steadily all his Karmas to live in palace and rule as a king was over. He realized the real purpose of his life, his ultimate goal to be achieved in this very life span. He handed over the responsibilities of the kingdom to his son Chakrayudh.

For the entire year from that time, he distributed wealth among the people. One day, along with thousand other kings, he came out of the palace, removed his hair with his fist, uttered, “Namo Siddhanam” (I bow down to all liberated souls) and became an ascetic.

He went roaming place to place and meditating. Lots of problems came in his path but they all had to surrender to Lord Shantinath’s feet. Due to his pacifying glow of compassion all the animals around him used to come near him and sit peacefully. For one long year, Lord Shantinath did hard practices and remained engrossed in meditation to realize the self.

Omniscience and Nirvana

After wandering as an ascetic for one year he returned to the same jungle of Hastinapur Town, where he had taken renunciation. There on the ninth day of the bright half of the month of Paush, while meditating under a Nandi Tree, Lord Shantinath attained Omniscience. His first discourse was on the subject of disciplining the senses. In his first religious discourse his son, mother, wife, all the people of Hastinapur and many people from all around came. Under the influence of the Pravachan Chakrayudh also took diksha (renunciation) and started his journey towards Moksha in the end.

He came to the Sammet Shikhar after a long period of preaching and propagating true religion. There, along with nine hundred other Omniscient ascetics, Lord Shantinath started his final meditation to shed the non-destructive karma. On the thirteenth day of the dark half of the month  of Jyeshtha Lord Shantinath attained Nirvana.

Monday, June 27, 2011

The Difference between Tirthankars and Omniscient (Kewali)

Depending on mental alertness or dynamism of the practicer there are numerous levels of practicers, viz. Jinakalpi (solitary), Abhigrahdhari (who gives emphasis on specific resolution), Pramatta (partially alert), Apramatta (absolutely alert), Saragi (partially detached), Vitragi (absolutely detached), etc.  The first step in this progression is Sadhu (ascetic) and the last is Vitrag, Tirthankar and Kewal Jnani (omniscient).  Although there is no difference in the level of knowledge of a Tirthankar and an omniscient, the status of Tirthankar has its own importance.  It has its own attributes and recognition.  The difference between these two states of highest purity are as follows –

In a Tirthankar there is precipitation of the Tirthankar-nam-karma.  This is absent in case of common omniscient.

For two earlier births a Tirthankar necessarily acquires right-perception.  It is not a rule    for a common omniscient.

A Tirthankar while in the womb has Avadhi Jnan (all knowledge of the physical world). It is not a rule for a common omniscient.

The mother of a Tirthankar has fourteen great dreams at the time of conception.  It is not so in the case of a common omniscient.

A Tirthankar is always a male, the case of Lord Mallinath (19th Tirthankar) being a unique exception.  For a common omniscient this rule does not apply.

A Tirthankar is not breast-fed; whereas a common omniscient (Kewali) is.

A Tirthankar gives charity for one year immediately before Diksha, as a rule. A Kewali does not necessarily.

A Tirthankar does not give discourse before attaining omniscience, he may, however, answer a question.  A Kewali does give discourses even as a common ascetic.

In a Tirthankar’s life there are five auspicious events.  It is not so in case of a Kewali.

A Tirthankar acquires Manahparyav Jnan immediately after his Diksha.  A Kewali does not.

A Tirthankar is self-enlightened.  A Kewali is not necessarily.

Before his Diksha a Tirthankar is formally asked for that by the gods.  For Kewali no god arrives.

A Tirthankar establishes the four pronged religious organization or ford; not a Kewali.

A Tirthankar has a religious order; not a Kewali.

The principal disciples of a Tirthankar are Ganadhars.  A Kewali’s disciples are not.

A Tirthankar has eight auspicious attributes; not a Kewali.

A Tirthankar has thirty four unique attributes; not a Kewali.

A Tirthankar’s speech has thirty five unique attributes; not a Kewali’s.

A Tirthankar in his progression to purity does not touch the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Gunasthans (the specific stages on the path of purity); whereas a Kewali may touch all Gunasthans except the 11th.

A Tirthankar does not have Kewali-Samudghat (a special process of spsiritophysical transformation); a Kewali has.

A Tirthankar is born in the Kshatriya caste.  A Kewali may be from any and all castes.

A Tirthankar has Sam-chaturasra Samsthn (one of the six types of anatomical structures).  A Kewali may have nay of the six.

A Tirthankar may exist only in fifteen specific Karma-bhumi’s (the worlds of action). A Kewali exists generally in the fourth part; however, one born in the fourth part may attain the status during the fifth part also.

A Tirthankar is always self initiated.  A Kewali may also be initiated by others.
A Tirthankar exists only in the third and fourth part; however, one born in the fourth part may attain the status during the fifth part also.

Two Tirthankars never happen to meet each other; whereas Kewalis do.

The minimum number of Tirthankars existing at one time is twenty and maximum
is 170.  For Kewali’s these numbers are 20 million and 90 million.

The Ganadhars create the twelve canons based on Tirthankar’s preaching.  This is not so in case of a Kewali.

A Tirthankar does not face any afflictions after he becomes an omniscient.  A Kewali may have to face.

A Samavasaran (divine pavilion) is created for a Tirthankar; not for a Kewali.

The first discourse of a Tirthankar is never a failure; it is not necessarily so in case of a Kewali.

The soul of a Tirthankar always descends from the dimension of gods or ascends from hell.  The soul of a Kewali may come from any of the four dimensions.

In case of a Tirthankar the Vedaniya Karma (the Karma of sufferance) is of good-bad quality and the remaining non-vitiating Karmas are of exclusively good quality. In case of a Kewali only the Ayushya Karma (age determining) is of exclusively good quality, the remaining three being good-bad.

Only worthy souls arrive in the assembly of a Tirthankar; whereas in a Kewali’s assembly even unworthies may come.

There is only one Tirthankar in one specific area.  Kewali’s may be many.


Sunday, May 29, 2011


There are eight main types of Karma which are categorized into the ‘Destructive’ and ‘Non-Destructive’; each divided into four types. The destructive karmas (ghātiyā karmas) directly affect the soul powers by impeding its perception, knowledge and energy, and also bring about delusion. These harming karmas are: Darshnavarniya (perception obscuring karma), Gyanavarniya (knowledge obscuring karma), Antarāya (obstacles creating karma) and Mohanīya (deluding karma). The non-destructive category (aghātiyā karmas) is responsible for the re-born soul's physical and mental circumstances, longevity, spiritual potential and experience of pleasant and unpleasant sensations. These non-destructive karmas are: Nama (body determining karma), Ayu (life span determining karma), Gotra (status determining karma) and Vedanīya (feeling producing karma) respectively. Different types of karmas thus affect the soul in different ways as per their nature. Each of these types has various sub-types.
Tattvārthasūtra generally speaks of 148 sub-types of karmas in all. These are: 5 of Gyanavarniya, 9 of Darshnavarniya, 2 of Vedanīya, 28 of Mohanīya 4 of Ayu, 93 of Nāma, 2 of Gotra, and 5 of Antarāya.


Destructive Karmas directly affect the attributes of the soul. These are…

1.        Knowledge Obscuring Karma (Gyanavarniya Karma) - These Karmas obscures the knowledge attribute of the soul.
2.        Perception Obscuring Karma (Darshnavarniya Karma) - These karmas diminish the powers of Perception of a soul.
3.        Deluding Karma (Mohanīya Karma) - These karmas are an instrumental cause of destruction the soul's right belief and right conduct. Of all karmas, deluding karma is the most difficult to overcome. Once this is eradicated, liberation is ensured within a few lifetimes.
4.        Obstructing Karma (Antarāya Karma) - The fruition of these karmas creates obstructions to giving donations, obtaining gains, and enjoying things.

When Destructive Karmas are totally destroyed, the soul attains Omniscience (Keval Gyaan). Thus, in the same lifetime the soul attains liberation as soon the aghātiyā karmas are exhausted in the due course.

1. KNOWLEDGE OBSCURING KARMA (GYANAVARNIYA KARMA): The knowledge-obscuring karma are of five types:

1.        Empirical-cognition knowledge obscuring (Mati Gyanavarniya Karma) - which causes the obscuration of the knowledge, transmitted through the senses.
2.        Articulate knowledge - scripture knowledge obscuring (Sruta Gyanavarniya Karma) - which produces the obscuration of knowledge acquired by interpreting signs (i.e. words, writings, gestures).
3.        Clairvoyance knowledge obscuring (Avadhi Gyanavarniya Karma) - which hinders transcendental knowledge of material things.
4.        Telepathy knowledge obscuring (Manahaparyaya Gyanavarniya Karma) - which hinders transcendental knowledge of the thoughts of others.
5.        Omniscient knowledge obscuring (Keval Gyanavarniya Karma) - which obscures the omniscience inherent in the Jiva (Soul) by natural disposition.

Of these, the last mentioned karma hinders Omniscience altogether; the four others do not result in complete destruction of the corresponding faculties of knowledge, but often produce only greater or less disturbances.

2. PERCEPTION OBSCURING KARMA (DARSHNAVARNIYA KARMA): The perception-obscuring karma are of four types:

Sight perception obscuring Karma (Chakshu Darshnavarniya Karma) - which produces the obscuration of the Darshan conditional upon the eye. 
Non-sight perception obscuring Karma (Achakshu Darshnavarniya Karma) - which causes the obscuration of the undifferentiated cognition, conditional upon the other senses and the organ of thinking.
Remote Perception obscuring Karma (Avadhi Darshnavarniya Karma) - which causes the obscuration of the transcendental undifferentiated cognition of material things.
Perfect perception obscuring Karma (Keval Darshnavarniya Karma) - which hinders the absolute undifferentiated cognition (the counterpart of the omniscience).

The last mentioned karma hinders completely; the three others produce under certain circumstances only a disturbance of the respective cognition faculties.

In addition to these four Darshnavarniya karmas there are five others which produce physio-psychological conditions in which the sense organs are not active, and which, therefore, exclude all possibility of perception. These are the five Nidra karmas, (sleep karmas), namely:

Nidra Karma- which produces a light, pleasant slumber, out of which the sleeper is already aroused by the clicking of finger nails.
Nidra Nidra Karma- which produces a deep slumber, out of which the sleeper can only be awakened by being shaken violently.
Prachala Karma- which sitting or standing upright.
Prachala Prachala karma- which produces an exceedingly intensive sleep, that overcomes a person while walking.
Styänarddhi Darshnavarniya Karma which causes somnambulism, acting an unconscious state.

3. MOHANIYA KARMA: Mohaniya is derived from Moha which means attachment. Mohaniya karma (deluding karma) is the most dangerous, out of all the eight karmas because `moha' (attachment) is the root cause of all Kasayas (passions). It is also most difficult karma to destroy. If mohaniya karma is destroyed fully, the self becomes free from all Kasayas and liberation is assured. Two main categories of Mohaniya karma are—

Faith Deluding Karma (Darshan mohaniya) and
Conduct Deluding Karma (Charitra mohaniya karma).

With their subtypes there are 28 sub-types of mohaniya karma.

1.       Faith Deluding Karma (Darshan mohaniya): The Darshan mohaniya-karma causes a disturbance of the knowledge of the religious truth inherent in the Jiva (Soul) by natural disposition. These are further divided into three types according as to whether the disturbance is an absolute or a partial one:

·         False Faith Deluding Karma (Mithyatva Mohaniya Karma): This causes complete unbelief or heterodoxy. If it realizes itself, the Jiva (Soul) does not believe in the truths as proclaimed by Mahavira; he believes false prophets to be saints and enjoins false doctrines.   
·         Mixed Deluding Karma (Mishra Mohaniya): This produces a mixed belief, i.e., if it operates the soul waves to and for betwixt true and false; it is indifferent to the religion of the Jina and has no predilection for, nor hatred against it.  
·         Right Faith Deluding Karma (Samyaktva Mohaniya): This induces the correct belief. This Samyaktva is, however, not the correct faith in its completeness, but only in a preliminary degree; it is a so called Mithyatva, from which the Mithyatva quality has been abstracted a Mithyatva free from poison.   

2.       Conduct Deluding Karma (Charitra Mohaniya):  The Charitra mohaniya-karma disturbs the right conduct possessed innately by the Jiva; it hinders the soul from acting according to the religious prescriptions. The disturbance of the conduct is produced through the sixteen passions (kashaya), the six emotions with are categorized as non-passions (nokashaya) and the three sexes.

The four main passions are Anger, Deceitfulness, Pride and Greed. The Karma are literally bound on account of the stickiness of the soul due to existence of various passions or mental dispositions. Each of these is separated into 4 sub divisions, according to the intensity of their manifestation. The first one is “anantanubandhin” (of life long duration) which completely hinders belief and conduct. The second one is “apratyakhyanavarana” (hindering and non-renunciation) It makes impossible every renunciation, but allows the existence of true belief and lasts for one year. The third one of still milder intensity is “pratyakhyanavarana” (hindering with renunciation). It hinders the beginning of complete self discipline, but does not prevent the existence of true belief and partial self discipline (desavirati). Its effect lasts for 4 months. The last one is samjvalana (flaming up). It allows complete self discipline, yet works against the attainment of complete right conduct (yathakhyata caritra). It lasts a fortnight.

The nokashayas or six non-passions are: Hasya (laughing, joking or making fun of), Rati (prejudicial liking or impartiality), Arati (improper conduct) Shoka (sorrow), Bhaya (fear), and Jugupsa (disgust). All these six emotions are caritra Mohaniyas, because the soul which is subjected to them is hindered through them in the practice of right conduct.

The vedas or the sex passion hinders the Jiva (Soul) from obeying the laws and from practicing self discipline. It is of threefold variety, according to the three species of sexes:

·         Purusa veda (the male sex and corresponding sex passion) - Through this, in the man the desire for union with a female is produced. Also man has at first an exceedingly strong desire, which disappears as soon as his lust is satisfied.
·         Stri veda (the female sex and corresponding sex passion) – Through this, in a woman the desire for union with a man is excited. Also the desire in the woman is weak so long as she is untouched, but grows into immensity through the enjoyment of intercourse.
·         Napumsaka veda (the third sex and corresponding sex passion) – Effects the third sex belong all those beings who have no sexual organs. The sexual desire is with them exceedingly strong because it is directed towards men and women. It is to be compared to the burning of a town, which lasts long and finds no satisfaction.

4. ANTARAYA KARMA: This type of Karma obstructs the soul’s ability to acquire infinite energy. Even though many of us desire to donate, we cannot do so. A rich person can afford any dinner of his or her choice but cannot necessarily enjoy it if he or she has diabetes. You might have had the experience in which everything was set 100% right to complete the project but for some reason you could not even start the project. Situations of this nature occur because of the influence of this Karma. This Karma also causes obstruction in the worship of Jina and in the performance of the spiritual activities. Consequently, Obstructing Karma is responsible for all the obstacles we face in our lives.

This Karma obstructs the adoption of a desirable course or attainment of one’s objectives or equipments and is of five subdivisions. It is compared to a "Storekeeper” who does not permit issue from the store.

·         Obstructing Charity (Dana Antaraya Karma) - hinders dispensing alms. When it operates a person who knows the merit in giving and who has something to give away, is not capable to give it, although there is someone worthy of the gift.
·         Obstructing Profit (Labha Antaraya Karma) - hinders receiving. When it operates, a person is not capable of receiving a present, although a friendly giver and a suitable present are present.
·         Obstructing Enjoyment (Bhoga Antaraya Karma) - hinders the enjoyment of something which can only be taken once (such as eating drinking).
·         Obstructing Repeated Enjoyment (Upabhoga Antaraya Karma) - hinders the enjoyment of something which can be repeatedly used (such as a dwelling, clothing, and women).
·         Obstructing Power (Virya Antaraya Karma) - hinders the will power. When it operates, even a strong, full grown man is incapable of bending a blade of grass.

Obstructing Karma is accumulated due to the obstruction of the worship of the Jinas (Tirthankars) and other spiritual activities, obstructing others from doing penance, service, practicing devotion or giving charity, not giving the charity, causing loss to others, and obstructing others’ food, water etc. Some of the effects of Obstructing Karma include the inability to perform penance, laziness, and weakness. Even if one has the desire to travel on the right path, on account of excessive Obstructing Karma, one would not be able to do so.

Obstructing Karma can be shed off by giving charity, sharing knowledge, helping monks and nuns, encouraging others to give charity, and encouraging and helping others to do penance and service and by showing benevolence. When we get rid of Obstructing Karma completely, we attain infinite power (Anant-shakti). The soul will have no disability or weakness.


These do not affect the soul directly; rather, they have an effect on the body that houses the soul. These are:

Lifespan Determining Karma (Ayu Karma) - These karmas determine the subsequent states of existence and lifespan therein after death. The soul gets locked either into animal (tiryancha), infernal (nāraki), human (manuṣya), or celestial (deva) bodies for its next birth.
Body Determining Karma (Nam Karma) - these karmas determine the type of body occupied by the soul.
Status Determining Karma (Gotra Karma) - The fruition of these karmas gives one high status or low status in society.
Feeling Producing Karma (Vedaniya Karma) - These karmas become an instrumental cause of the interruption of the soul's uninterrupted happiness. As a result of this, the soul remains agitated.

           As soon as the Non-Destructive Karma gets exhausted the Soul attains    Liberation (Moksha).  

1. LIFESPAN DETERMINING KARMA (AYU KARMA) – The Lifespan Determining Karma confers on a being a certain quantum of life in one of the four states of existence. Therefore there are four types of Ayu Karmas; Dev Ayu (The Celestial Lifespan), Manushya Ayu (The Human Lifespan), Tiryancha Ayu (The Animal Lifespan) and Naraka Ayu (The Infernal Lifespan). The Ayu-karma bestows a certain quantity of life, but not a definite number of years of life. For, as with a sponge, the quantity of water that it absorbs is determined, but not the time it takes to leave it, so also the quantum of life is determined, but not the time occupied in its consumption. The word Ayu would, therefore, be approximately interpreted by "quantity of life" or "quantity of vitality"). The Ayu (Lifespan) of the new existence is always bound during the life immediately preceding it, especially in the 3rd, 9th, or 27th part or within the last 48 minutes of life.
           Engaging in violent activities and taking the lives of others result in one acquiring Hellish or Animal age determining Karma. Human or celestial Age determining Karma is acquired by living honest righteous life, low passions and rendering selfless service to others. Showing compassion towards everybody can shed off age determining Karma. Once all of the age determining Karma has been shed off completely, the soul attains immortality (Akshaya-sthiti). In this state, the soul is never reborn.

2. BODY DETERMINING KARMA (NAM KARMA) – The Body Determining Karma causes the individual diversities of the Jivas (Souls). It is divided into 93 sub-types, which are mostly quoted in a definitely fixed succession in 4 groups (Pinda prakrtis, Pratyeka prakrtis, Trasadasaka, Sthavara dasaka). They are the following:

Four states of existence:
·         Dev Gati Nam Karma - bestows the celestial state of existence
·         Manushya Gati Nam Karma - bestows the human state of existence
·         Tiryanch Gati Nam Karma - bestows the animal state of existence, and
·         Naraka Gati Nam Karma - which bestows the infernal state of existence

     Five Classes of Beings:
·         Ekendriya jati nama karma causes birth as a being with one sense
·         Dvindriya jati nama karma causes birth as a being with two senses.
·         Trindriya jati nama karma causes birth as a being with three senses.
·         Caturindriya jati nama karma causes birth as being with four senses
·         Pancendriya jati nama karma causes birth as a being with five senses.

     Five Types of Bodies:
·         Audarika sarira nama karma gives a gross physical body peculiar to animals and men.
·         aikriya sarira nama karma gives the transformational body which consists of fine matter that changes in form and dimension. This body exists by nature in gods, infernal beings and certain animals; men can attain it through higher perfection.
·         Aharaka sarira nama karma gives the translocation body. This body consists of good and pure substance and is without active and passive resistance. It is created for a short time by anapramatta samyata ascetic (ascetic with some carelessness), in order to seek for information concerning intricate dogmatic questions from an arhat who is in another part of the world, while his own physical body remains in its original place.
·         Taijasa sarira nama karma gives the fiery body. This body consists of fire pudgalas and serves for the digestion of swallowed food. It can also be used by ascetics to burn other beings or things.
·         Karmana sarira nama karma gives the karman body which is possessed by all worldly souls. This body is the receptacle for karman matter. It changes every moment, because new karman is continually assimilated by the soul and the already existing one consumed. Accompanied by it, the jiva at death leaves his other bodies and betakes himself to the place of his new birth, where the karman body then forms the basis of the newly produced other bodies. This body is destroyed only when all the karma are destroyed.

Of these 5 bodies each succeeding one is finer than the one preceding it, but contains more material points than it; it is therefore denser. Every worldly soul (that is, soul not yet liberated) is always connected with a fiery and a karman body, but can, in addition, still possess one or two other bodies. At any given point of time four bodies can co-exist with a soul. For example, humans normally have three bodies simultaneously—audarika sarira (normal visible gross physical body), taijasa sarira (fiery body), and karmana sarira (karmic body). Some higher spiritual ascetics may possessvaikriya sarira (transformational body).

·         Corresponding to these five bodies there are thirteen more karmas to make the bodies operative. There are three types of angopanga nama karma for body parts—audarika angopanga nama-karma, vaikriya angopanga nama-karma and aharaka angopanga nama-karma. Fiery and the karman body are subtle and have no body parts. Each body requires specific binding to operate that is enabled by its respective karma. Hence there are five types of bandhana or bindings for these body parts—audarika bandana nama-karma, vaikriya bandana nama-karma, aharaka bandana nama-karma, taijasa bandana nama-karma and karmana bandana nama karma which procures the binding of physical, transformational, translocational, fiery and karmic body respectively. At the same time, combination of molecules (samghatanas) is required for binding of bodies, which are—audarika samghatana nama-karma, vaikriya samghatana nama-karma adharaka samghatana nama-karma, taijasa samghatana nama-karma, and karmana samghatana nama-karma.

●     Six Karmas related to joints:

1.     Vajra rsabha naraca samhanana nama-karma gives an excellent joining. The two bones are hooked into one another, through the joining, a nail (vajra) is hammered and the whole joint is surrounded by a bandage.
2.     Rsabha naraca samhanana nama-karma gives a joining not so firm as the preceding one, because the nail is missing.
3.     Naraca samhanan nama-karma gives a joining which is still weaker, because the bandage is missing.
4.     Ardha naraca samhanana nama-karma gives a joining which is on one side like the preceding one, while on the other the bones are simply pressed together and nailed.
5.     Kilika samhanana nama-karma gives a weak joining, by which the bones are merely pressed together and nailed.
6.     Sevarta (chedaprstha) samhanana nama-karma gives quite a weak joining, by which the ends of the bones only touch one another. The humans in this era as per Jain cosmology have this type of joint structure.

The samhananas play a great role in Jain doctrine. Only the first four make a meditation possible and only the best structure, the 1st joining of the joints, permits the highest kind of concentration which precedes salvation.

 ● The six samsthana nama-karmas related to body symmetry are:

1.     Samacaturasra samsthana nama-karma, which causes the entire body to be symmetrically built.
2.     Nyagrodhaparimandala samsthana nama-karma, which causes the upper part of the body to be symmetrical, but not the lower.
3.     Sadi samsthana nama-karma, which makes the body below the navel symmetrical and above it unsymmetrical.
4.     Kubja samsthana nama-karma makes the body hunchbacked, i.e. hands, feet, head and neck symmetrical, breast and belly unsymmetrical.
5.     Vamana samsthana nama-karma dwarf like, i.e. breast and belly symmetrical, hands, feet etc. unsymmetrical.
6.     Hunda samsthana nama-karma makes the entire body unsymmetrical.

The conception of symmetry is explained in the following way: One imagines a man sitting in the paryanka posture, i.e. crossing the legs and placing the hands over the navel. If one imagines that the two knees are joined by a line, and from the right shoulder to the left knee, and from the left shoulder to the right knee, and from the forehead to the hands, a straight line is drawn, one gets four lines. If these are equal to one another, symmetry is apparent; if they are not so, one of the other 5 samsthanas results. Gods have only the first symmetry, infernal beings and Jivas (Souls) who have been produced through coagulation only the 6th figure; in the case of animals and men (also of Kevalis) all six samsthanas are to be found.

● The following karmas provide different types colors to the bodies:

1.     krsna varna nama-karma (black), 2. nila varna nama-karma (dark, blue green, like an emerald), 3. lohita varna nama-karma (colour which is red, like vermillion), 4. haridra varna nama-karma (yellow, like turmeric) and 5. sita varna nama ( white, like a shell). Other colors, such as brown etc., are produced by mixing. Black and green are considered as being pleasant, the others as unpleasant colors.

● The following karmas provide different types of odors to the bodies: 1. surabhi      gandha nama-karma produces pleasant odors (e.g., that of camphor) and 2. durabhi gandha nama-karma produces unpleasant odors (e.g., that of garlic).

● The following karmas provide different abilities of tastes to the bodies:  1. tikta rasa nama-karma gives a bitter taste (like that of the nimba fruit), 2. kasaya rasa nama-karma gives an astringent taste (like that of bibhitaka), 3. amla rasa nama-karma gives a sour taste (like that of tamarind) and 4. madhura rasa nama-karma gives a sweet taste (like that of sugar). The salt taste is produced by a combination of the sweet taste with another. Bitter and biting tastes are considered unpleasant, the others pleasant.

Eight karmas related to different type of touches are:

·         Guru sparsa nama-karma which causes a thing to be heavy, like an iron ball.
·         Laghu sparsa nama-karma which causes a thing to be light, like particles in a sunbeam.
·         Mrdu sparsa nama-karma causes a thing to be smooth, like a tinisa tendril.
·         Khara sparsa nama-karma which causes a thing to be rough, like stone.
·         Sita sparsa nama-karma causes a thing to be cold, like snow.
·         Usna sparsa nama-karma causes a thing to be warm, like fire.
·         Snigdha sparsa nama-karma causes a thing to be adhesive, like oil.
·         Ruksa sparsa nama-karma cases a thing to be dry like ashes.

Heavy, hard, dry, cold are considered to be unpleasant touches, the others pleasant.

The anupurvi nama-karma causes that the Jiva, when one existence is finished, goes from the place of death in the proper direction to the place of his new birth. According to the 4 states of existence (celestial, human, animal, infernal) there are 4 anupurvi karmas, namely: 1. dev (Celestial) anupurvi nama karma, 2. manusya (Human) anupurvi nama karma, 3. tiryanch (Animal) anupurvi nama karma, and 4. naraka (Hellish) anupurvi nama karma.

Karma that bestows different gaits to souls are: prasasta vihayogati nama-karma which causes a being to move in a pleasant manner, as e.g. oxen, elephants and geese do and aprasasta vihayogati nama-karma which causes an ugly manner of motion, as, e.g. one finds with camels and asses.

Following are the eight karmas related to eight pratyeka prakrtis:

1.      Paraghata nama karma– It gives superiority over others. It endows the capability of injuring or vanquishing others; on the other hand, it prevents one from being injured or overcome by others.
2.      Ucchvasa nama karma – It bestows the capability of breathing.
3.      Atapa nama karma – It causes the body of a being not in itself hot to emit a warm splendour.
4.      Uddyota nama karma– It causes the transformation body of the gods and ascetics, as well as moon, stars, precious stones, herbs and shining insects to emit a cold lustre.
5.      Agurulaghu nama karma– It makes a being neither heavy nor light, i.e., causes it to possess neither absolute weight nor absolute lack of it.
6.      Tirthankara nama karma– It procures the position of a ford-maker of the Jain religion.
7.      Nirmana nama karma – It causes the formation of the body, i.e., it causes the members of a being to be in their right place.
8.      Upaghata nama karma – It causes self annihilation. It produces that the parts of the body of a being (e.g. the uvula in the throat) cause its death.

The ten karmas related to trasa prakrtis (positive karmas) are:

1.     Trasa nama karma, which gives a voluntarily movable body.
2.     Badara nama karma, which gives a gross body
3.     Paryapta nama karma, which causes the complete development of the organs (karana) and capacities (labdhi) of nourishment, of the body, of the senses, of breathing, of speech, and of thought.
4.     Pratyeka nama karma, which causes the being to possess an individual body.
5.     Sthira nama karma, which causes the teeth, bones, etc., to be firm.
6.     Subha nama karma, which causes the parts of the body above the navel to be beautiful.
7.     Subhaga nama karma, which causes some one to whom is not under an obligation to be sympathetic to one.
8.     Susvara nama karma, which bestows a voice which is melodious.
9.     Adeya nama karma, which causes that some one is suggestive, so that his speech meets with approbation and belief.
10. Yasahkirti nama karma, which grants honour and glory.

       ● The ten karmas related to sthavara prakrtis (opposite of trasa prakrtis) are:

1.     Sthavara nama karma, which, causes a body (of plants and elementary beings) that cannot be moved voluntarily.
2.     Suksma nama karma gives (to elementary beings) a subtle body, imperceptible to our senses.
3.     Aparyapta nama karma causes that the organs or faculties of a being do not attain full development, but remain undeveloped.
4.     Sadharana nama karma gives (to plants etc.) a body in common with others of their species.
5.     Asthira nama karma causes that ears, brows, tongue, etc. are flexible.
6.     Asubha nama karma causes at all parts of the body, below the navel are considered to be ugly, so that somebody who is touched by the foot feels this to be unpleasaant.
7.     Durbhaga nama karma makes the jiva unsympathetic.
8.     Duhsvara nama karma makes the voice ill sounding.
9.     Anadeya nama karma makes the jiva unsuggestive.
10. Ayasahkirti nama karma causes dishonor and shame.


     This Karma determines whether the living being will be born in a restrained and respected family or otherwise. (It is divided into two categories viz., (a) High (Uchcha) status Karma and (b) Low (Neech) Status Karma, which are further divided into eight subcategories each. Some scholars states that this karma is not simply with mundane aspects of birth environment, but rather with whether that environment is more or less conducive to the pursuit of the spiritual life.

·         High Status (Uchcha Gotra) Karma
·         Low Status (Neech Gotra) Karma

High Status (Uchcha Gotra) Karma: It involves a high and respectful status in respect to (I) family; (ii) community (iii) learning (iv) power (v) profit (vi) penance (vii) looks and (viii) luxury. These eight form its subdivisions. This Karma results from non-exhibition of and non-exultation in one’s qualities, knowledge, wealth and other attainments and admiring such attributes of others.

Low Status (Neech Gotra) Karma: It results in the opposite equipment and attainments like low and not respectable family, connections etc, and are earned by exhibition and exultation in one’s knowledge and wealth etc. and deprecating such qualities in others. Lower status determining Karma causes us to be low and not respected in society. Higher status determining karma causes us to be high and well respected in society. Disrespecting people, being egoistic, proud, indulging in self aggrandizement and making fun of others acquire low status determining karma. Higher status determining karma is acquired by having devotion and faith in the Jain congregation, not looking down upon anyone, being free from pride, respecting and honoring all, and treating everyone with love. Being respectful towards those who have status and also towards those who do not have status can shed status determining karma. Once our status determining karma is shed completely, our soul becomes stable, not too heavy, not too light (aghuru-laghu).


The vedaniya karma or feeling producing karmas are of two types:

·         Pleasure Producing Karma (Shata Vedniya Karma) - The Karma related to pleasure or happiness are called Pleasure Producing (Shätä Vedaniya) Karma
·         Pain Producing Karma (Ashata Vedniya Karma) – The karma related to displeasure, unhappiness or pain, are called Pain Producing (Ashata Vedniya) Karma

         As such no external object or event makes one happy or unhappy, as it has no inherent pleasantness or unpleasantness, but serves simply as a prop which reinforces whatever feeling is being karmically produced at that moment. So it is appropriate to say that it is feeling pertaining karma.

As a corollary to the feeling of pleasure or pain, this Karma provides all means and equipment leading to pleasure or pain. This is compared with a sharp knife or dagger covered with honey, which is sweet to taste but can also, cut or harm the tongue.

Pain Pertaining (Ashätä Vedaniya) Karma is acquired by causing pain to others, harassing others, killing others, causing others to worry, and by making others miserable. Pleasure Pertaining (Shätä Vedaniya) Karma is acquired by being compassionate towards all living beings, not causing pain to anybody, making others happy, helping others, giving others protection and peace, and sharing with and comforting others.

Offering comfort, kindness, help, protection, and peace to others can shed Feeling Pertaining (Vedaniya) Karma. It may be clarified again that this Karma concerns worldly pleasure (or pain) only and not the ultimate infinite happiness and bliss of the soul which comes from complete destruction of all Karma (including this Karma) on attainment of liberation or Moksha.

"There is nothing mightier in the world than karma;

karma tramples down all powers, as an elephant a clump of lotuses."

-Bhagwati Aradhna